The rapid growth of integrated circuit IC industry is connected with MEMS which were used to produce tiny devices [ 14 ], such as sensors [ 15 ], switches [ 16 ], filters [ 17 ], and silicon gears [ 18 ].
Introduction to MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems)
Nowadays, in various markets, such as automotive, electronics, medical, communications and defensive technologies, MEMS find many applications [ 19 ]. Among different ferromagnetic materials, magnetite has attracted much attention because it is environmentally safe, inexpensive and chemically stable [ 20 , 21 ]. Various methods for magnetic nanoparticles preparation, such as sol-gel process [ 22 ], hydrothermal process [ 23 ] and co-precipitation [ 24 , 25 ], have been reported in the literature. Various studies have been performed to prepare magnetic polymeric particles [ 26 ].
In one of those methods, magnetic inorganic particles and polymer particles are synthesized separately and then mixed together for enabling either physical or chemical adsorption of polymer onto the magnetic particles [ 27 ]. Another method is to suspend magnetic particles in a solvent containing monomer and then polymerize the monomer in the presence of magnetic particles to form magnetic polymer particles by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization [ 28 ], dispersion polymerization [ 29 ], mini-emulsion polymerization [ 30 ], inverse emulsion polymerization [ 31 ], inverse microemulsion polymerization [ 32 ] and suspension polymerization [ 33 ].
Polystyrene is an environmental friendly inexpensive polymer which has a good capability to incorporate magnetite nanoparticles [ 30 , 34 ].
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Polystyrene is not conductive inherently but it can become conductive by adding critical amount of conductive nanoparticles to it [ 35 ]. Electrical properties of the nanocomposite were studied by cyclic voltammetry to know the usefulness of the nanocomposite for sensor applications. A 1 M LiCl solution was used as an electrolyte. In all preparation steps a Milli-Q water purification system from Millipore Madrid, Spain was used for preparing ultrapure water.
FeCl 3 1. To dissolve the components completely, the solution was sonicated for 10 minutes.
Then, 10 mL saturated NaOH was added to the solution under ultrasonic condition. The resulted precipitate was washed with water 3 times and centrifuged. For nanocomposite preparation, four different amounts of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles 0. Then, 15 mL ethanol was added to the mixture containing dissolved polystyrene and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The deposited polystyrene encapsulated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The obtained nanocomposite was mixed with a very low amount of silicone oil and deposited on a copper wire surface to use as the working electrode in cyclic voltammetry and investigate the possibility of using the nanocomposite in sensor fabrication.
The polystyrene was synthesized by purification of polystyrene.
Polystyrene was dissolved in ethyl acetate and formed again by adding ethanol to the solvent. Absorption peaks at cm —1 and cm —1 are caused by aromatic C—H stretching vibrations. The peaks at cm —1 and cm —1 are caused by aliphatic C—H vibrations. The peaks observed at cm —1 and cm —1 are related to single substituted benzene. Citation: Materials Science-Poland 35, 1; Four different amounts of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were used for the nanocomposite synthesis 0.
Santini and his team at MicroChips faced a number of hurdles. For example, to protect the drugs and sensors until they were released or exposed, it was necessary to hermetically seal all of the electronics, including radios for controlling the device, along with the MEMS reservoirs and caps. The trick was that conventional welding required temperatures that would damage the enzymes and peptides that were to be stored in the wells.
So the company developed a cold-compression technique that forms an unbreakable bond.kessai-payment.com/hukusyuu/mobile-tracker/tur-geolocalisation-portable.php
Microelectromechanical systems - Wikipedia
The remaining challenges had to do with finding particular applications that needed the MEMS array technologies. With the MEMS technology, however, it became possible to implant an array of sensors, activating just one at a time. The sensor is read by onboard electronics, with the data transmitted via radio to an external monitor. In the case of osteoporosis treatment, the technology offered a way to deliver a medicine that normally requires daily injections.
Parathyroid hormone is the only osteoporosis drug approved that can help the body to repair damage caused by osteoporosis, rather than just stop the damage, Santini says. The problem is that the drug cannot be delivered gradually, in a conventional control-release delivery system. As a result, the drug had to be administered via daily injections. MicroChips technology offered a way to deliver quick bursts of the drug automatically.
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The chip can be programmed to release the drug at regular intervals. It can also be controlled via radio signals.
Related 35.Microelectromechanical Systems
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