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Suneel, K. Kiran Kumar, P. Siva Prasad. Abstract: In this paper we present an automatic evaluation method for the determination of the quality of milled rice. Among the milled rice samples the quantity of broken kernels are determined with the help of shape descriptors, and geometric features. This proposed method gives good results in evaluation of rice quality.

Keywords: Rice, Morphological Processing, Parameters, broken rice.

## Encyclopedia of Optimization

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Elsevier Science Ltd. Yadav, B. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 33 1 , 19— Yanagihara, T. Saravanan, M. Abstract: Compression is a technology for reducing the quantity of data used to represent any content without excessively reducing the quality of the picture. Compression is a technique that makes storing easier for large amount of data.

It also reduces the number of bits required to store and transmit digital media. In this paper, a fast lossless compression scheme is presented and named as HL which consists of two stages. In the first stage, a Huffman coding is used to compress the image.

In the second stage all Huffman code words are concatenated together and then compressed with Lempel Ziv coding. This technique is simple in implementation and utilizes less memory. A software algorithm has been developed and implemented to compress and decompress the given image using Huffman coding techniques in MATLAB software. Keywords: Lossless image compression, Huffman coding, Lempel Ziv coding. Ziv and A. Saravanan and R. Weinberger, G. Seroussi, and G. Image Processing, pp. Gonzales, R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, pp.

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## The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed. | Interaction Design Foundation

Video Technol. Adina Arthur, V. Choi and M. Zhenxing Luo. Abstract: In this paper, we present a distributed estimation method in wireless sensor networks WSNs based on decisions transmitted over Rayleigh fading channels. The fusion centre can uses either coherent receiver or non-coherent receiver to acquire decisions transmitted over Rayleigh fading channels. The estimation method using coherent receiver and the estimation method using non-coherent receiver are presented and the Cramer-Rao lower bounds CRLBs are derived. Moreover, simulation results highlighted the importance of the number of sensors, channel SNR, and accurate channel SNR information known to the fusion centre on estimation performance.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, maximum likelihood estimation, distributed estimation, Cramer-Rao lower bound, Rayleigh fading channel. Li, K. Wong, Y. Hu, and A. Luo and T.

Sheng and Y. Niu and P. Ozdemir, R. Niu, and P. Signal Process. Ribeiro, and G. Hao and P. Liu, B. Xu, M. Zeng, and H. Abstract: Wireless sensor networks WSN have attracted significant attention recently. The distributed estimation problem is an important research topic in WSNs. In the distributed estimation problem, the fusion center estimates an unknown parameter based on information gathered from sensors. Usually, it is assumed that sensors have identical gains.

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However, this may not be true due to manufacture errors or environmental influence. In this paper, we assume sensor gains follow normal distribution and present a maximum likelihood estimation MLE approach for distributed estimation in WSNs with normally distributed sensor gains.

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Keywords: Distributed estimation, maximum likelihood estimation, Gaussian distribution, wireless sensor networks. Papoulis and S. Pillai, Probability, random variables, and stochastic processes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, Bhargavi, M.

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Abstract: This paper presents a flexible 2x2 matrix multiplier architecture. The architecture is based on word-width decomposition for flexible but high-speed operation. The elements in the matrices are successively decomposed so that a set of small multipliers and simple adders are used to generate partial results, which are combined to generate the final results. The architecture can be easily extended to a reconfigurable matrix multiplier.

The objective is to propose a flexible and energy efficient matrix multiplier, which can be extended to reconfigurable high speed processing implementation, using word width decomposition technique. This technique is based on divide and conquers approach. The Karatsuba multiplication is proposed in this basic approach. This Karatsuba multiplication is an efficient procedure for multiplying large numbers, which gives high speed performance than the booth multiplier.

Keywords: Balanced word-width decomposition. Pan,and S. Parallel Distrib.