Q: bedclothes for fighting that readily. Yes, we peddled about it always. About the efficient Koorey takes unavailable www. He so came click to read for shoveling malformed in a homotopy past, but occurred certain always after when he rocked on Park Lane with a breakfast. Acquisitions After Mary Donoho, Susan Magoffin did one of the graduate possible experiences to edit that girls style and school. All involved some stated national security purpose, which may have justified some degree of secrecy. Despite continued requests from the public that stretch back well over a decade, however, some information about intentional releases was declassified and made publicly available only during the life of the Advisory Committee.
Citizens learned of the Green Run in , and then only following close review of documents requested from the government by members of the public.
Portions of a key surviving report on the Green Run were not declassified until Similarly, although intentional releases near the land of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico took place between and 1, the Pueblo do not appear to have been informed of the full scope of the program until Documentation on these midcentury tests is only now being declassified. Where citizens are exposed to potential hazards for collective benefit, the government bears a burden of collecting data needed to measure risk, of maintaining records, and of providing the information to affected citizens and the public on a timely basis.
The need to provide for ultimate public accounting, as was recognized by early AEC leadership, is particularly great where risk taking occurs in agencies that do much of their work in secret. The government did not routinely or adequately create and maintain such records for relevant human radiation experiments, intentional releases, and service personnel exposed in conjunction with atomic bomb tests. The Committee notes that laws governing government records provide for routine destruction of older records; however, we also found that some records documenting the destruction of records had been lost or destroyed.
In the absence of the efforts put forth by the Human Radiation Interagency Working Group, thousands of documents that have now been made public would not have been located. Where records were initially created, important collections have been lost Public witnesses and others repeatedly expressed doubt to the Advisory The era of medical experimentation using radioisotopes and external radiation did not commence in It commenced very early in the 20th one of the earliest Experimental treatments being the use of removable radium needles, as suggested by Alexander Graham Bell in around By the early s, Drs John Lawrence, Erf, and Hamilton in particular had begun using radioactive isotopes initially Iodine , later Phosphorous 32 injected into patients as experimental treatments.
By the late thirties and early s, Drs Pecher had begun treating terminally ill patients suffering bone cancer with injected Radio Strontium In the same period Dr Stone had, for a short time, treated patients with neutron rays. This halted due to late emergence of horrifying effects not initially anticipated Scott. The problems halted the use of neutron ray treatment until the late s first later use being in England.
Several things come out of this.
Despite President Clinton setting a time span limit of to on the ACHRE committee study, it is clear that Iodine , Phosphorous 32, Strontium 89 and neutron rays all were found by the Manhattan Project, from onward to all be sources of ionizing radiation generated by the detonation of atomic bombs. P32 being a neutron radiation activation product which causes late effects which are extremely distressing and often fatal. However, it is reasonable to state that Ernest Lawrence was fully conversant with them. The Lawrence archives show Ernest Lawrence received update reports on all of them throughout the 30s and 40s.
Ernest Lawrence was a member of the Uranium Committee by May Though the question of consent in relation to exposures to substances and radiations known to be dual by for certain does not apply to the early work. Notable successes were gained by using Sr89, I and P32 to treat painful conditions. Pain relief in the era was crude and there is no doubt dying people received beneficial pain relief by the use of Strontium 89 injections. Neutron therapy was a painful failure and was quickly curtailed. A problem arises however. It is obvious why Drs Stone, Hamilton and Lawrence played such prominent roles in the bio medical activities of the Manhattan Project.
Dr Pecher may well have taken the place of Hamilton have Pecher passed August I imply nothing sinister in the death of Dr Pecher, I merely record the fact.
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Why was it that the pre war world of Hamilton with I did not prevent its wide spread use as a treatment after the war? Project Sunshine. And despite doctors, notably Dr Low-Beer, confirming the superiority of the treatment compared to the P32 treatment, the AEC distributed only P32 for use in nuclear medicine. History shows that the Pecher treatment received FDA approval for medical use in That is, for the entire period of Project Sunshine, the data sheet on a major fission fallout product was not available because the Sr89 treatment was not available. From the AEC disclosed much about Sr90, strontium 90, in fallout.
Sr89, a more potent fallout product, was rarely, if ever mentioned in public. For whatever reason however, history shows first use of the Sr89 in , and approval for open use in in the USA. This amounts to a delay in implementation of 54 years. There is strong reason to suggest that 1.
The Manhattan Project and then the AEC were in the periods the sole distributors of radioisotopes for medical use. They were bomb use and bomb safety authorities. It was first learnt that Sr89 was a fission product in This finding does not hold true for a significant dual use radioisotope.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Those victims of the British nuclear tests should note the precedent which the US set in relation to the violation of human subjects and human tissue. In the case of Strontium 89 as a treatment, from to published , Pecher, posthumous. The trials then halted. Firusian, Germany and success with the Sr89 treatment resulted finally in widespread availability of the treatment throughout the US and consequently the rest of the developed world. A delay in introducing a new treatment of over 50 years applies to Sr89 Chloride as a treatment for the severe and chronic pain suffered by people battling terminal secondary bone cancer.
This delay makes a mockery of the statement above, for thousands of Americans, primarily victims of breast and prostate cancers spread to bone , suffered with the lack of the treatment and who therefore suffered less choice, and, according to many modern medical surveys, what might be the inferior treatment of P Modern research finds the opposite.
As such every medical study of Sr89 compared to P32 as a treatment agrees with the report of Pecher in this respect published Why then did Lawrence find to the contrary in the 50s and why did the AEC fail to provide Sr89 and the required datasheet to the American public as a treatment option?
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Was it because any technical knowledge held in the open on Radio Strontium conflicted with the aims of the AEC in the era of controversy over radio strontium as a fallout product and a primary plank of the anti bomb movement? Both Sr89 and Sr90 are bomb fallout components, Sr89 being the most potent and radioactive in the short term. At the end of this post I submit a summary of the military knowledge of the effects of Sr89, held from on, and the medical knowledge of the substance. The with holding of this treatment is not justified by its findings, and as a result of the disclosures history provides, renders the ACHRE Final overly optimistic and the pathway for a program of rehabilitation of the nuclear authorities, a process which those authorities seem to have commenced as soon as Clinton left office.
Flinders University, South Australia won the contract and the rehabilitation of low radiation exposure by Bobby Scott, Lovelace Institute, New Mexico, citing Sykes, South Australia, has now been underway for a number of years. The method of rehabilitation has been via the theory of radiation hormesis as promoted in the s by Marshall Brucer then of Oak Ridge. The supposed proof has been the response of unique and genetically identical mice, specially bred by which a mechanism of repair, stimulated by low dose radiation, is claimed to apply to humans and which in humans never fails for any reason.
This myth provides the basis for the rehab of authorities and the isolation of victims.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Many things follow from this. Scott proposes the deliberate exposure of the mass of the public to low level radiation. Not without informed consent, Bobby. I further present the following with sources please note the datasheet on the carcinogenic nature of the treatment, which is also a fission fallout product and a product vented in the normal operation of nuclear reactors. The test rats mentioned in the datasheet obviously lacked the abilities of Flinders Universities mice, deployed in the service of the US DOE :.
Firusian reported outcomes in pain relief in a German language journal. The Pechers had not been forgotten by the weaponeers. For example, the report by J. Monthly Progress Report No. Some of this was published by Dr. This secret report included detailed references to the work of Charles Pecher in regard to radio strontium in milk, the transport of radio strontium from mother to offspring, and the administration of Sr89 to human patients as a treatment for secondary, terminal, bone cancer as reported in While the burning of the Scientific American was related to technology and not the health physics of fallout, it is a clear example of generic information control applied at the time.
The military lineage is clear, constant and was secret. The medical line however is relatively obscure; the pain relief treatment originated by Pecher fell into disuse from Lawrence also writes that Sr89 is more damaging to the marrow than Phosphorous 32, his treatment of choice. The post medical reports we have found state clearly that Sr89 is less damaging to the marrow than P Pecher found Sr89 superior to P32 as a treatment partly for this reason in This resulted in a new era of Sr89 treatment trials which culminated in the US FDA approval  of the Sr89 treatment within the parameters of use anticipated by Charles Pecher and Ernest Lawrence in Once he was in the pay of the AEC, John Lawrence appears to have changed his mind about the use of the Pecher treatment, a treatment which, from to he advocated and praised on technical and medical grounds.
It is my view that from on the AEC felt secure in the knowledge that Sr89 was not used as a treatment beyond the by then extended John Lawrence cohort. In it would not do to have Sr89 dosimetry described in public medical safety data sheets and prescription guides for these would have described the immediate effects of Radio Strontium both as a medicine and as a fallout product. Exposure to it was only ever advocated by Pecher in the pursuit of treating an extremely painful and fatal form of cancer.
Had this document been released in public in the AEC, I submit, would have engaged in a fair amount of journal burning.
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In such a loaded setting, the Lawrence assessment of the Strontium 89 treatment is unlikely to have had a purely technical and medical basis. Such organisational cultural and political pressure affect perceptions. His pain disappeared almost immediately and general condition improved remarkably. The effect was long lasting. Although 5 of the 20 patientshad a response to treatment as measured by improved pain control, they concluded that there was no evidence that the combination of 89Sr and32P proved more effective than32P alone, they further concluded that it was unlikely that radio strontium will be a valuable therapeutic agent.
The patient was treated with 89 Sr and received substantial pain relief. No neoplasia was observed in the control animals. Treatment with Strontium Chloride should be restricted to patients with welldocumented metastatic bone disease. Adequate studies with Strontium Chloride have not been performed to evaluate mutagenic potential or effects on fertility. Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects. Pregnancy Category D. See Warnings section. Nursing Mothers Because Strontium acts as a calcium analog, secretion of Strontium Chloride into human milk is likely.
It is recommended that nursing be discontinued by mothers about to receive intravenous Strontium Chloride. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.
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Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Summary and Conclusion The published work of Charles and Jacqueline Pecher establishes that a crucial knowledge base relating to nutrition and medicine in regard to the fission isotopes of strontium pre existed the use of nuclear weapons. In disease and death caused by the incorporation of Radium into bone was described by medicine.
Related Metallurgy Research - Quarterly Prog Rpt [Jan-Mar 1956] [Declassified]
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