Cybersecurity in France. This Brief presents the overarching framework in which each nation is developing its own cyber-security This Brief presents the overarching framework in which each nation is developing its own cyber-security policy, and the unique position adopted by France. Modern informational crises have penetrated most societal arenas, from healthcare, politics, economics to the conduct of business Handbook of Nonverbal Assessment.
The second edition of this comprehensive volume presents methods for nonverbal assessment of diverse individuals, The second edition of this comprehensive volume presents methods for nonverbal assessment of diverse individuals, such as persons with speech or hearing deficits, limited English skills, or emotional problems.
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Chapters provide a contemporary context for nonverbal evaluations, accompanied by descriptions Hypertension and Cardiac Organ Damage. This book identifies the key determinants in the management of hypertensive outpatients with Cardiac Target This book identifies the key determinants in the management of hypertensive outpatients with Cardiac Target Organ Damage. It sheds light on current international guidelines by directly applying them to six representative clinical cases that reflect situations frequently encountered during clinical Perversion Now!
This collection, written by leading Lacanian psychoanalytic theorists and practitioners, explores the impact of shifts The book explores a wide Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields.
In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Considered a counting device, it was a piece of string or rope with knots at various intervals and colors to denote numerical values. The Islamic World : Most developments in mathematics came through the Islamic Golden Age but even then there was little to add during the period. What Islamic scholars essentially did was continue more ancient Greek and Roman traditions in all existing sciences at the time and also of Indian developments through the Arab and Persian worlds.
Most of the work in algebra came during this period. In Egypt, Abu Kamil developed irrational numbers and square roots, hugely influential through to the modern day. The Islamic World was obsessed with Euclid, solving some of his equations, finding flaws, and developing solutions to some of his most complex issues. Little work had been done until this time and it's thanks to these North African and Middle Eastern scholars that the ancient Greek and Roman mathematicians are still celebrated today.
The Christian World : Developments in mathematics focused on looking for evidence of the natural order of things and, by definition, God's fingerprints. One of the earliest Christian mathematicians was Boethius who lived in the 6 th century.
Two of these not subjects of modern math astronomy and music although both rely on mathematical principles quite heavily. Unlike many other areas, Christian Europe was only too happy to adopt Islamic thinking and concepts in the pursuit of mathematics and much work in Spain sought to harness the knowledge of the Moors both before and after their expelling from Iberia. Not that the medieval period was devoid of mathematical progress.
The 14 th century. Mathematics of the Renaissance is largely concerned with the expansion of bureaucracy and taxation, and the advent of accounting due to the new areas and methods of business that grew up in this time. This was the age of the first true modern banks and the calculation of interest and dividends. For that, we required complex algebra and arithmetic.
But mathematics as a scientific principle also developed in this time thanks to an invention that came around the beginning of the period - the printing press All of a sudden, publishing books was faster and easier than ever before, allowing the dissemination of printed material and some great works on mathematics were published in the few hundred years that followed. The likes of Leonardo Da Vinci designed some fantastical machines 28 including the parachute and a flying machine although science would later modify these early concept designs, it shows how mathematics and engineering were becoming fundamental sciences.
This is also the age of trigonometry with practical applications in navigation and the age of sail Trigonometry is the science of measuring relationships, angles, distances, elevation, and bearing. The word and the concept arrived around this time. The importance of mathematics only increased during the scientific revolution and new applications were being found all the time.
In astronomy, although the link was always there, figures such as Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepl3r and Galilei Galileo made some great discoveries thanks to the telescopes and were able to use math to calculate distances and relationships between heavenly bodies.
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Much of their conclusions about astronomy during the Enlightenment was based on complex mathematical measurements, particularly the work of Kepler who used a solid foundation of mathematics to define laws of planetary motion 30 , and Renee Descartes developed analytical geometry to plot those motions in graphs.
Engineering aside, there are few areas of science that have received quite so much development than astronomy and astrophysics.
Isaac Newton would later develop the world of both men and create the first laws of physics But there were other areas for applied mathematics too. Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal set wheels in motion for the creation of probability theory and rules of combinatorics. The story goes that while gambling, Pascal wagered a life devoted to the pursuit of religion and spirituality. He posited that even though the odds were small, the rewards were infinite.
This thinking would eventually lead to utility theory which would come later in the Enlightenment, and largely the work of philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill although they did not develop it until the modern age The 18th century was dominated by the works of Leonhard Euler He was responsible for developing mathematics in many ways, not least of all the development of graph theory and solving what were until then seemingly unsolvable mathematical conundrums such as the square root of minus 1, and the first use of the Greek letter that now represents the number pi 3.
The last great names of the Enlightenment before reaching the modern age include Joseph Louis Lagrange. His work in algebra, mathematical theory, calculus differential calculus and variations and Laplace who was famous for statistics and celestial mechanics. The modern age, roughly beginning with the Industrial Revolution in the early 19 th century, is one of development of mathematics as a practical application in the new developments of the science of engineering. Great new machines, building materials and processes simply built on what went before although the advent of the combustion engine is one of the greatest inventions of its age.
But the 19 th century is also one in which mathematics becomes more abstract too. One example of this trend is Carl Friedrich Gauss. His work on functions of complex variables for geometry, fundamental theorem of algebra, and the quadratic reciprocity law was far less practical for the every day, but put mathematics on the road to becoming an area of pursuit in itself rather than a means to an end. This principle challenges the Euclidian assumption that straight and parallel lines will never meet.
Yet this is not true, especially when dealing with spherical objects By the turn of the 20 th century, mathematics had become a viable academic and industrial career choice.
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Its applications in engineering, physics, chemistry and biology made it a useful subject to study and teach while the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution and urbanization meant math graduates all over the world had options to work in a variety of areas. The 20 th century would see two major disruptions. The first was the career of Albert Einstein who revolutionized many mathematical equations to solve some of the largest outstanding problems in physics.
Differential geometry, for example, is at the core of his General Theory of Relativity The second is computing which developed during the Second World War and now permeates our lives so heavily that we cannot imagine living without information technology We now live in the Computing Age and much of the technology would not have been possible with programming and coding necessary to develop the theory behind computing - everything from the first calculators to Cloud Computing and Big Data.
But go back a few hundred years and it is far more controversial than some internal disagreement between mathematical scientists. The very idea of zero did not exist in the western world until around the year 1, There is some debate amongst European historians on the use of zero mostly because the major ancient powers of the Greeks and the Romans did not use it - this is most prevalent in the Roman numeral system which never had a representation of zero.
We know the concept came into the west from the Arab world which was - eventually - hugely influential on the Renaissance and later Enlightenment mathematics. We know there was some resistance amongst the conservative elements in Catholic Europe in this time to the inclusion of zero within mathematics.
Recent claims that they feared the idea of nothingness as a precursor to the non-existence of God are not supported by evidence while others have claimed their opposition was simply the fear of concepts from Islamic thinking and culture. Evidence for the former is lacking, though often repeated, while we do know that the city of Florence banned the use of Arabic numerals - it was out of belief of the possibility of fraud in their new market system 38 rather than religiously-motivated. It is likely that opposition was simply the emotional one of opposing to something new or, as is the case with Florence, concerns over enabling fraud.
The simplicity with which a number can be changed to something far less or far greater with the addition of one or more zeroes fueled this problem. Ultimately, zero was going to make its way into common use. When it did, it allowed for the highly important developments in calculus With the adoption of zero, we could calculate distance and speed and without that, we would not have had many aspects of physics or even engineering.
Algebra is one of the most important areas of mathematics and one usually taught in its most basic form, to elementary school children. Despite this, it can get complex. It deals with properties and their operations, and also their structures to solve often quite simple problems. They vary because they may depend on the variable nature of other items in the equation. It's divided into many subareas with elementary algebra being the most commonly used in everyday use. As discussed above, it is named after the Persian thinker who came up with several concepts around the idea To many people, arithmetic is the ability to - as most people would call it - do sums in one's head without needing paper and pen, calculator or any other device to work it out.
But it's actually much simpler than that. Arithmetic concerns numbers, their values and relationships, and operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It is one of the basics of number theory, dealing with decimals, and forms the basis of any economy, budgeting, bookkeeping even household finance. Arguably, it is the one area of math that we all need every minute, every day of our lives to work out times, measurements, distances and so on. It is another area of math that many people believe is more complicated than it actually is. It's the study of change including distance and time.
It differs from arithmetic specified above in that it examines the changes rather than looking for an answer based on the integers, by breaking things down into infinitesimals There are two branches of calculus: differential calculus which is the study of instantaneous rates such as curves and slopes, and integral calculus, which studies quantities and accumulations and the areas around and underneath curves.
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